FIFA: Zero positive doping tests at Russia World Cup
• There have been no positive results from over 3,000 anti-doping tests carried out before and during the World Cup.
• FIFA collected 2,761 samples prior to the tournament and another 626 during it, including 108 collected on non-matchdays, as part of the largest-ever World Cup testing programme.
"The regular tests were complemented by FIFA's use of the athlete biological passport programme in WADA's "ADAMS" system, under which all test results, including those from confederations and NADOs, collected at the main international football events as well as national competitions, are gathered in the athlete's passport in ADAMS, which features a haematological module [through blood] and a steroidal module [through urine]," FIFA said in a statement.
"FIFA's Athlete Passport Management Unit, composed of independent experts, reviews the data of players to detect potential deviations that may indicate an abuse of performance-enhancing drugs. This applied to all participating players at the FIFA World Cup."